Global Ocean Health Index assessments score 10 goals, some of which have sub-goals. The Ocean Health Index measures the ability of oceans to sustainably provide 10 products or services (called “goals”) that are important to humans. Here you will find a description of the goals used in global assessments. Goal-by-goal, you can explore the data used to model status and trend, as well as the pressures and resilience measures contributing to goal scores.





Goal scores are calculated by modeling data first as Present Status and Likely Future State.
Likely Future State is a combination of status, trend, pressures and resilience calculations, which unequally contribute to goal scores.

Scroll down for a description of each goal as well as the model and data used to calculate the goal (blue text links to descriptions of the specific data used in the calculation of each goal).

A complete list of the data used in the calculations is available. You can also explore OHI+ goal approaches.


Food Provision: Fisheries

Goal Description

The Fisheries sub-goal describes the amount of wild-caught seafood harvested and its sustainability for human consumption. The model generally compares landings with Maximum Sustainable Yield. A score of 100 means the country or region is harvesting seafood to the ecosystem’s production potential in an sustainable manner.

Model

The model assess the amount of wild-caught seafood that can be sustainably harvested, with sustainability based on multi-species yield, and with penalties assigned for both over- and under-harvesting. Each taxa landed within each FAO major fishing area is assessed separately based on B/BMSY (maxium sustainable yield) and weighted by its relative contribution to overall catch. The goal status score for each reporting region in each year was calculated as the geometric mean of the all stock status scores (Halpern 2015).

Reference points

The reference point is B/BMSY, at which harvest is both maximal and sustainable. The estimates of B/BMSY were obtained by applying a model developed by Martell & Froese (2012), and hereafter referred to as the “catch-MSY” method. The latter was chosen, among other data-limited methods available, based on simulation-testing showing that it most accurately predicted stock status for simulated stocks having a broad range of life history traits and different known sources of uncertainty. The catch-MSY approach improves upon the method used in the 2012 OHI-Global assessment in that it: 1) leverages a mechanistic understanding of the connection between harvest dynamics and population dynamics and uses this to infer stock depletion levels (see also Thorson et al., 2013), 2) is an indicator of stock abundance (B) rather than catch, making it more directly informative of stock status, and 3) at least in some cases (i.e., those cases where the catch trajectory is not a monotonic increase), can be applied to developing fisheries (whereas the previous approach assumed a perfect score in those cases).

Data used in model

Status & trend

B/Bmsy estimates (fis_b_bmsy): The ratio of fish population abundance compared to the abundance required to deliver maximum sustainable yield (RAM data and catch-MSY)

Fishery catch data (fis_meancatch): Mean commercial catch for each OHI region (averaged across years)

Pressure

Chemical pollution (po_chemicals): Modeled chemical pollution within EEZ from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Genetic escapes (sp_genetic): Introduced mariculture species (Mariculture Sustainability Index) as a proxy for genetic escapes

High bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_hb): The presence of destructive artisanal blast and poison (cyanide) fishing.

High bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_hb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 5 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Intertidal habitat destruction (hd_intertidal): Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction

Low bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_lb): Extent of artisanal fishing (including: artisanal, subsistence, and recreational catch)

Low bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_lb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 2 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Nonindigenous species (sp_alien): Measure of harmful invasive species

Nutrient pollution (po_nutrients): Modeled nutrient pollution within 3nm of coastline based on fertilizer consumption

Subtidal hardbottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_hb): High bycatch artisanal fishing practices (blast fishing) as a proxy for subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction

Subtidal soft bottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_sb): Demersal destructive commercial fishing practices (i.e., trawling) in soft bottom habitat as a proxy for soft bottom habitat destruction

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Artisanal fisheries management effectiveness (fp_mora_artisanal): Quality of management of small-scale fishing for artisanal and recreational purposes

Commercial fishing management (fp_mora): Regulations and management of commerical fishing

EEZ protected marine areas (fishing preservation) (fp_mpa_eez): Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ)

EEZ protected marine areas (habitat preservation) (hd_mpa_eez): Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ)

Management of habitat to protect fisheries biodiversity (fp_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of habitat to protect habitat biodiversity (hd_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Measure of ecological integrity (species_diversity_eez): Marine species condition (species subgoal status score) as a proxy for ecological integrity

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Food Provision: Mariculture

Goal Description

Mariculture measures the ability to reach the highest levels of seafood gained from farm-raised facilities without damaging the ocean’s ability to provide fish sustainably now and in the future. Higher scores reflect high food provisioning in a sustainable manner, while not compromising the water quality in the farmed area and not relying on wild populations to feed or replenish the cultivated species. A score of 100 means that a region is sustainably harvesting the greatest amount of farmed seafood possible based on its own potential.

Model

Model measures the quantity of sustainably harvested mariculture species per coastal inhabitant (i.e., those within 25km of the coast), under the assumption that mariculture development scales proportionally with coastal population, which is a proxy for potential logistic limitations to farm development, e.g., presence of infrastructures, coastal access, and locally available workforce. The species assessed are strictly marine species from both the marine and brackish water FAO categories, excluding aquatic plants such as kelps and seaweeds, which were assumed to contribute predominantly to medicinal and cosmetic uses rather than as a source of food (Halpern 2012). The sustainability score (SM,k) for each species in each country is based on the Mariculture Sustainability Index (MSI) (Halpern 2015).

Reference points

The reference point is 95% of the highest harvested tonnes per coastal inhabitant (i.e., those within 25km of the coast) among all assessed regions, under the assumption that production depends on the presence of coastal communities that can provide the labor force, infrastructures, and economic demand to support the development and economic viability of mariculture facilities.

Data used in model

Status & trend

Inland coastal population (mar_coastalpopn_inland25mi): Total coastal population within 25 miles of coast.

Mariculture harvest (mar_harvest_tonnes): Tonnes of mariculture harvest

Mariculture sustainability score (mar_sustainability_score): Mariculture sustainability based on the Mariculture Sustainability Index (MSI)

Pressure

Chemical pollution (po_chemicals): Modeled chemical pollution within EEZ from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Coastal nutrient pollution (po_nutrients_3nm): Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption

Sea level rise (cc_slr): Sea level rise pressure

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Management of mariculture to preserve biodiversity (g_mariculture): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: mariculture related questions

Management of waters to preserve biodiversity (po_water): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions

Mariculture Sustainability Index (g_msi_gov): Mariculture practice assessment criteria from the Mariculture Sustainability Index (MSI)

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Artisanal Fishing Opportunity

Goal Description

Artisanal fishing, often also called small-scale fishing, provides a critical source of food, nutrition, poverty alleviation and livelihood opportunities for many people around the world, in particular in developing nations. This goal measure whether people who need to fish on a small, local scale have the opportunity to do so. It has three sub-components: stock, access, and need. A score of 100 means the country or region is meeting the needs of artisanal fishermen or communities by implementing institutional supports, providing access to near-shore water, and maintaining the health of targeted species.

Model

Status model for this goal is a function of need for artisanal fishing opportunities and whether or not the opportunity is permitted and/or encouraged institutionally and done sustainability. This need was measured by an analogous proxy: per capita gross domestic product (pcGDP) adjusted by the purchasing power parity (PPP), which translates the average annual income (pcGDP) into its local value (PPP). These data correlate with UN data on the percent of a population living below international poverty standard, which directly ties to this need for small-scale fishing. The opportunity or ability to meet this need, we used data from (Mora et al.), which scores countries on the institutional measures that support or facilitate artisanal and small-scale fishing.

The sustainability of artisanal fishing practices could be approximated by the percent of fishermenthat use sustainable gear such as hook and line versus unsustainable methods such as dynamite, cyanide and, arguably, gill net fishing. Unfortunately data on proportion of gear type used within a country is scarce at best and so we were unable to include this term in the calculation of this goal.

Reference points

The reference point for this goal is when all demand for artisanal fishing is allowed and/or achieved and done in a sustainable manner.

Data used in model

Status & trend

Artisanal fisheries opportunity (ao_access): The opportunity for artisanal and recreational fishing based on the quality of management of the small-scale fishing sector

Economic need for artisanal fishing (ao_need): Per capita purchasing power parity (PPP) adjusted gross domestic product (GDP): GDPpcPPP as a proxy for subsistence fishing need

Pressure

Coastal chemical pollution (po_chemicals_3nm): Modeled chemical pollution within 3nm of coastline from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Coastal nutrient pollution (po_nutrients_3nm): Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption

High bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_hb): The presence of destructive artisanal blast and poison (cyanide) fishing.

High bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_hb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 5 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Intertidal habitat destruction (hd_intertidal): Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction

Low bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_lb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 2 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Nonindigenous species (sp_alien): Measure of harmful invasive species

Subtidal hardbottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_hb): High bycatch artisanal fishing practices (blast fishing) as a proxy for subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction

Subtidal soft bottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_sb): Demersal destructive commercial fishing practices (i.e., trawling) in soft bottom habitat as a proxy for soft bottom habitat destruction

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Coastal protected marine areas (fishing preservation) (fp_mpa_coast): Protected marine areas within 3nm of coastline (lasting special places goal status score)

Coastal protected marine areas (habitat preservation) (hd_mpa_coast): Protected marine areas within 3nm of coastline (lasting special places goal status score)

Commercial fishing management (fp_mora): Regulations and management of commerical fishing

Management of habitat to protect fisheries biodiversity (fp_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of habitat to protect habitat biodiversity (hd_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Measure of coastal ecological integrity (species_diversity_3nm): Marine species condition (same calculation and data as the species subgoal status score) calculated within 3 nm of shoreline as a proxy for ecological integrity

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Natural Products

Goal Description

In many countries the harvest of non-food natural products is important for local economies and can also be traded internationally. The sustainable harvest of these products is therefore an important component of a healthy ocean. This goal assesses the ability of countries to maximize the sustainable harvest of living marine resources, such as corals, shells, seaweeds, and fish for the aquarium trade. It does not include bioprospecting which focuses on potential (and largely unknowable and potentially infinite) value rather than current realized value, or non-living products such as oil and gas or mining products which by definition are not sustainable.

Model & Data

The goal model measures the harvest level (in metric tons) for a product and the sustainability of that harvest. The sustabinality factor of each product was accounted for by adjusting its harvest level with a sustainability term based on the intensity of harvest per km2 of coral and/or rocky reef relative to the global maximum (its ‘exposure’). For ornamental fish and corals, the sustainability factor also includes the ‘risk’ that is associated with known unsustainable harvest practices (i.e., the intensity of cyanide fishing for ornamental fish, and any harvest of corals since they are CITES protected species).

Six different natural products were assessed: coral, ornamental fish, fish oil, seaweeds and marine plants, shells, and sponges. Status of sustainable harvest of each product (tonnes) was calculated individually first. The overall goal score weights the status of each product by its proportional value (US dollars) relative to other harvested products.

Reference points

For each product, the reference point is its maximum value (in 2008 USD) achieved in that country with a 65% buffer, under the assumption that the maximum achieved at any point in time was likely the maximum possible. This creates a reference point internal to each country. The buffer was added to accommodate uncertainty.

Data used in model

Status & trend

Areas of blast fishing (np_blast): Destructive artisanal blast fishing

Areas of poison fishing (np_cyanide): Destructive artisanal poison (cyanide) fishing

Natural product harvest (np_harvest_tonnes): Yield in metric tonnes of six marine commodities (coral, fish oil, seaweed and plants, shells, sponges, ornamental fish)

Relative harvest tonnes (np_harvest_tonnes_relative): Tonnes of harvest of each commodity relative to maximum harvest (with 35% buffer) of the commodity within the region observed across years.

Relative harvest value (np_harvest_product_weight): Value of harvest of each commodity relative to total harvest of six marine commodities (coral, fish oil, seaweed and plants, shells, sponges, ornamental fish) for each region and year

Pressure

Chemical pollution (po_chemicals): Modeled chemical pollution within EEZ from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

High bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_hb): The presence of destructive artisanal blast and poison (cyanide) fishing.

Intertidal habitat destruction (hd_intertidal): Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction

Low bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_lb): Extent of artisanal fishing (including: artisanal, subsistence, and recreational catch)

Low bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_lb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 2 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Nonindigenous species (sp_alien): Measure of harmful invasive species

Nutrient pollution (po_nutrients): Modeled nutrient pollution within 3nm of coastline based on fertilizer consumption

Ocean acidification (cc_acid): Ocean acidification pressure scaled using biological thresholds

Sea level rise (cc_slr): Sea level rise pressure

Sea surface temperature (cc_sst): Sea surface temperature anomalies

Subtidal hardbottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_hb): High bycatch artisanal fishing practices (blast fishing) as a proxy for subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction

Subtidal soft bottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_sb): Demersal destructive commercial fishing practices (i.e., trawling) in soft bottom habitat as a proxy for soft bottom habitat destruction

UV radiation (cc_uv): Modeled UV radiation

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Artisanal fisheries management effectiveness (fp_mora_artisanal): Quality of management of small-scale fishing for artisanal and recreational purposes

CITES signatories (g_cites): Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) signatories

Coastal protected marine areas (fishing preservation) (fp_mpa_coast): Protected marine areas within 3nm of coastline (lasting special places goal status score)

Coastal protected marine areas (habitat preservation) (hd_mpa_coast): Protected marine areas within 3nm of coastline (lasting special places goal status score)

Commercial fishing management (fp_mora): Regulations and management of commerical fishing

EEZ protected marine areas (fishing preservation) (fp_mpa_eez): Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ)

EEZ protected marine areas (habitat preservation) (hd_mpa_eez): Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ)

Management of habitat to protect fisheries biodiversity (fp_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of habitat to protect habitat biodiversity (hd_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of waters to preserve biodiversity (po_water): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions

Measure of coastal ecological integrity (species_diversity_3nm): Marine species condition (same calculation and data as the species subgoal status score) calculated within 3 nm of shoreline as a proxy for ecological integrity

Measure of ecological integrity (species_diversity_eez): Marine species condition (species subgoal status score) as a proxy for ecological integrity

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Carbon Storage

Goal Description

The Carbon Storage goal captures the ability of the coastal habitats to remove carbon given their carbon uptake rate and health conditions. A score of 100 means all habitats that contribute to carbon removal are still intact or have been restored and they can function to their full carbon burial potential. Highly productive coastal wetland ecosystems or seagrass store substantially large amount of carbon have the highest sequestration rates of any habitats on earth. They are also threatened by under-regulated coastal development but are amenable to restoration and conservation efforts.

Model

Goal model measures the current ‘condition’ of habitats relative to reference conditions, weighted by the relative contribution of each habitat type to total carbon sequestration, using data from (Laffoley & Grimsditch 2009) (Halpern 2015 final).

Three coastal habitats known to provide meaningful amounts of carbon storage were included in this goal: mangroves, seagrasses, and salt marshes (Halpern 2012). Habitat conditions are measured mainly by their coverage area, and their relative carbon sequestration are weighted: Mangrove as 139, Saltmarsh as 210, and Seagrass as 83 (Halpern 2015 final).

Reference points

A temporal reference point (ie. coverage data of a historical point) was used for each type of habitat. We generally considered the reference years to be between 1980-1995, although these varied by habitat due to data availability.

Data used in model

Status & trend

Habitat condition (hab_health): Current condition of habitat relative to historical condition

Habitat condition trend (hab_trend): Estimated change in habitat condition

Habitat extent (hab_extent): Area of habitats: mangrove, saltmarsh, seagrass, soft bottom, seaice, coral

Pressure

Coastal chemical pollution (po_chemicals_3nm): Modeled chemical pollution within 3nm of coastline from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Coastal nutrient pollution (po_nutrients_3nm): Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption

Intertidal habitat destruction (hd_intertidal): Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction

Nonindigenous species (sp_alien): Measure of harmful invasive species

Ocean acidification (cc_acid): Ocean acidification pressure scaled using biological thresholds

Sea level rise (cc_slr): Sea level rise pressure

Sea surface temperature (cc_sst): Sea surface temperature anomalies

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Coastal protected marine areas (habitat preservation) (hd_mpa_coast): Protected marine areas within 3nm of coastline (lasting special places goal status score)

Management of habitat to protect habitat biodiversity (hd_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of waters to preserve biodiversity (po_water): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Coastal Protection

Goal Description

This goal aims to assess the amount of protection provided by marine and coastal habitats against flooding and erosion to coastal areas that people value, both inhabited (homes and other structures) and uninhabited (parks, special places, etc.). A score of 100 would indicate that these habitats are all still intact or have been restored to their reference conditions.

Model & Data

The CP model is based on the relative health of the habitats that provide shoreline protection, weighted by their area and protectiveness rank (Halpern 2015 final). Condition of each habitat was calculated with various methods depending on data availability, which are mostly based on coverage area. Rank weights for the protective ability of each habitat (Rk) come from previous work48 that ranks mangroves, corals and sea ice as 4, salt marshes as 3, and seagrasses as 1 (higher values are better) (Halpern 2012).

Below are the data sets for this goal.

Reference points

A temporal reference point (ie. coverage data of a historical point) was used for each type of habitat. We generally considered the reference years to be between 1980-1995, although these varied by habitat due to data availability.

Data used in model

Status & trend

Habitat condition (hab_health): Current condition of habitat relative to historical condition

Habitat condition trend (hab_trend): Estimated change in habitat condition

Habitat extent (hab_extent): Area of habitats: mangrove, saltmarsh, seagrass, soft bottom, seaice, coral

Pressure

Coastal chemical pollution (po_chemicals_3nm): Modeled chemical pollution within 3nm of coastline from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Coastal nutrient pollution (po_nutrients_3nm): Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption

Intertidal habitat destruction (hd_intertidal): Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction

Nonindigenous species (sp_alien): Measure of harmful invasive species

Ocean acidification (cc_acid): Ocean acidification pressure scaled using biological thresholds

Sea level rise (cc_slr): Sea level rise pressure

Sea surface temperature (cc_sst): Sea surface temperature anomalies

Subtidal hardbottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_hb): High bycatch artisanal fishing practices (blast fishing) as a proxy for subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction

UV radiation (cc_uv): Modeled UV radiation

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Coastal protected marine areas (habitat preservation) (hd_mpa_coast): Protected marine areas within 3nm of coastline (lasting special places goal status score)

Management of habitat to protect habitat biodiversity (hd_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of waters to preserve biodiversity (po_water): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Tourism & Recreation

Goal Description

Tourism and recreation in coastal areas is a major component of thriving coastal communities and a measure of how much people value ocean systems, i.e. by traveling to coastal and ocean areas. This goal aims to capture the number of people, and the quality of their experience, visiting coastal and marine areas and attractions. A score of 100 means a region utilizes its full recreational potential without harming the ecosystem.

Model & Data

Assuming that the total number of people engaged in coastal tourism and recreation activities is directly correlated with employment in the tourism sector (eg. accommodation services, food and beverage services, retail trade, transportation services, and cultural, sports and recreational services), the TR model measures the proprotion of employment in tourism relative to total labor force in each country. The model also incorporated tourism competitiveness index (TTCI) from the World Economic Forum (WEF 2013) to capture the sustainability of the tourism industry (Halpern 2015).

Below are the data sets for this goal.

Reference points

Reference point is spatial: 90th quantile of coastal employment ratio among all regions.

Data used in model

Status & trend

Percent direct employment in tourism (tr_jobs_pct_tourism): Percent direct employment in tourism

Tourism sustainability index (tr_sustainability): Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI)

US State Department travel warnings (tr_travelwarnings): Countries with US State Department travel warnings

Pressure

Coastal chemical pollution (po_chemicals_3nm): Modeled chemical pollution within 3nm of coastline from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Coastal nutrient pollution (po_nutrients_3nm): Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption

Marine plastics (po_trash): Global marine plastic pollution

Pathogen pollution (po_pathogens): Percent of population without access to improved sanitation facilities as a proxy for pathogen pollution

Sea level rise (cc_slr): Sea level rise pressure

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Management of waters to preserve biodiversity (po_water): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Livelihoods & Economies: Livelihoods

Goal Description

The jobs and revenue produced from marine-related industries are clearly of huge value to many people, even for those people who do not directly participate in marine-related industries. People value community identity, tax revenue, and indirect economic and social impacts of a stable coastal economy. This sub-goal Livelihood describes job quantity and quality for people living on the coast. Livelihoods includes two equally important sub-components, the number of jobs, which is a proxy for livelihood quantity, and the per capita average annual wages, which is a proxy for job quality.

Model

The Livelihood model is based on job and wage data:

  • jobs: the total number of jobs within marine sectors within a country, adjusted by sector- and development status-specific multipliers derived from the literature. The multipliers account not only for direct employment opportunities and revenue, but also indirect and induced economic effects, since activity in the direct industry stimulates additional jobs and revenue in related industries.
  • average wages per job within each sector: adjusted for PPP (ie. purchasing power parity) to control for differences in the purchasing power of a dollar across countries with respect to a range of common goods.

The marine sectors included in this model are: Tourism, Commercial fishing, Marine mammal watching, Aquarium fishing, Wave & tidal energy, Mariculture, Transportation & shipping, Ports & harbors, Ship & boatbuilding

Reference points

Because there is no absolute reference point for jobs (i.e., a target number of jobs would be completely arbitrary), its reference point is calculated as a relative value on a moving baseline: the value in the current year (or most recent year) relative to the value in a recent moving reference period, defined as 5 years prior to the current year. This reflects an implicit goal of maintaining coastal livelihoods and economies on short time scales, allowing for decadal or generational shifts in what people want and expect for coastal livelihoods and economy.

For wages we assumed the reference value for average annual wages is the highest value observed across all reporting units.

Data used in model

Status & trend

Adjusted workforce size (le_workforcesize_adj): Total labor force (number of people) from the World Bank

Adjustment factor for jobs (current) (le_jobs_cur_adj_value): Percent employment during the current status year for each sector/region

Adjustment factor for jobs (reference) (le_jobs_ref_adj_value): Percent employment during the reference year (i.e., earliest year of data) for each sector/region

Adjustment factor for wages (current) (le_wage_cur_adj_value): Values are 1, no subsequent adjustments were made to the wage data

Adjustment factor for wages (reference) (le_wage_ref_adj_value): Values are 1, no subsequent adjustments were made to the wage data

GDP per capita PPP (le_gdp_pc_ppp): Gross domestic product per person at purchasing power parity

Jobs for each sector and year (le_jobs_sector_year): Number of jobs in each sector, region, and year.

Jobs, most current value (le_jobs_cur_base_value): Number of jobs in each sector and region for the most recent year of data

Jobs, reference value (le_jobs_ref_base_value): Number of jobs in each sector and region for the reference year (earliest year of data for sector/region) of data

Sectors in each region (le_sector_weight): Proportion of jobs within each sector

Total human population (le_popn): Human population of OHI regions

Unemployment (le_unemployment): Unemployment data from the World Bank

Wages for each sector and year (le_wage_sector_year): Wages for each sector, region, and year

Wages, current value (le_wage_cur_base_value): Wage data for the most recent year of data (relative to the assessment year) for each sector/region

Wages, reference value (le_wage_ref_base_value): Wage data for the earliest year of data for each sector/region

Pressure

Chemical pollution (po_chemicals): Modeled chemical pollution within EEZ from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Coastal nutrient pollution (po_nutrients_3nm): Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption

Genetic escapes (sp_genetic): Introduced mariculture species (Mariculture Sustainability Index) as a proxy for genetic escapes

High bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_hb): The presence of destructive artisanal blast and poison (cyanide) fishing.

High bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_hb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 5 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Intertidal habitat destruction (hd_intertidal): Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction

Low bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_lb): Extent of artisanal fishing (including: artisanal, subsistence, and recreational catch)

Low bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_lb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 2 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Marine plastics (po_trash): Global marine plastic pollution

Nonindigenous species (sp_alien): Measure of harmful invasive species

Nutrient pollution (po_nutrients): Modeled nutrient pollution within 3nm of coastline based on fertilizer consumption

Pathogen pollution (po_pathogens): Percent of population without access to improved sanitation facilities as a proxy for pathogen pollution

Sea level rise (cc_slr): Sea level rise pressure

Subtidal hardbottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_hb): High bycatch artisanal fishing practices (blast fishing) as a proxy for subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction

Subtidal soft bottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_sb): Demersal destructive commercial fishing practices (i.e., trawling) in soft bottom habitat as a proxy for soft bottom habitat destruction

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Economic diversity (li_sector_evenness): Sector evenness based on Shannon’s Diversity Index calculated on the proportion of jobs in each sector as a measure of economic diversity

Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) scores (li_gci): Competitiveness in achieving sustained economic prosperity

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Livelihoods & Economies: Economies

Goal Description

Economies captures the economic value associated with marine industries using revenue from marine sectors. It is composed of a single component, revenue.

Model

The Economies model assesses revenue from these marine sectors: Tourism, Commercial fishing, Marine mammal watching, Aquarium fishing, Wave & tidal energy, Mariculture, Transportation & shipping, Ports & harbors, Ship & boatbuilding.

Revenue is adjusted by sector- and development status-specific multipliers derived from the literature to account not only for direct revenue, but also indirect and induced economic effects, since activity in the direct industry stimulates additional jobs and revenue in related industries.

Reference points

Because there is no absolute reference point for revenue (i.e., a target number of revenue would be completely arbitrary), its reference point is calculated as a relative value on a moving baseline: the value in the current year (or most recent year) relative to the value in a recent moving reference period, defined as 5 years prior to the current year. This reflects an implicit goal of maintaining coastal livelihoods and economies on short time scales, allowing for decadal or generational shifts in what people want and expect for coastal livelihoods and economy.

Data used in model

Status & trend

Adjustment factor for revenue (current) (le_rev_cur_adj_value): GDP during the current status year of each sector/region (World Bank)

Adjustment factor for revenue (reference) (le_rev_ref_adj_value): GDP during the reference year (i.e., earliest year of data) of each sector/region (World Bank)

GDP (le_gdp): Gross Domestic Product (GDP)

Revenue adjustment (GDP) (le_revenue_adj): GDP data used to adjust revenue values

Revenue for each sector and year (le_rev_sector_year): Revenue for each sector, region, and year

Revenue, most current value (le_rev_cur_base_value): Revenue data for the most recent year of data (relative to the assessment year) for each sector/region

Revenue, reference value (le_rev_ref_base_value): Revenue data for the earliest year of each sector for each sector/region

Sectors in each region (le_sector_weight): Proportion of jobs within each sector

Pressure

Chemical pollution (po_chemicals): Modeled chemical pollution within EEZ from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Coastal nutrient pollution (po_nutrients_3nm): Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption

Genetic escapes (sp_genetic): Introduced mariculture species (Mariculture Sustainability Index) as a proxy for genetic escapes

High bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_hb): The presence of destructive artisanal blast and poison (cyanide) fishing.

High bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_hb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 5 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Intertidal habitat destruction (hd_intertidal): Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction

Low bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_lb): Extent of artisanal fishing (including: artisanal, subsistence, and recreational catch)

Low bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_lb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 2 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Marine plastics (po_trash): Global marine plastic pollution

Nonindigenous species (sp_alien): Measure of harmful invasive species

Nutrient pollution (po_nutrients): Modeled nutrient pollution within 3nm of coastline based on fertilizer consumption

Ocean acidification (cc_acid): Ocean acidification pressure scaled using biological thresholds

Pathogen pollution (po_pathogens): Percent of population without access to improved sanitation facilities as a proxy for pathogen pollution

Sea level rise (cc_slr): Sea level rise pressure

Sea surface temperature (cc_sst): Sea surface temperature anomalies

Subtidal hardbottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_hb): High bycatch artisanal fishing practices (blast fishing) as a proxy for subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction

Subtidal soft bottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_sb): Demersal destructive commercial fishing practices (i.e., trawling) in soft bottom habitat as a proxy for soft bottom habitat destruction

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) scores (li_gci): Competitiveness in achieving sustained economic prosperity

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Sense of Place: Iconic Species

Goal Description

Iconic species are those that are relevant to local cultural identity through a species’ relationship to one or more of the following: 1) traditional activities such as fishing, hunting or commerce; 2) local ethnic or religious practices; 3) existence value; and 4) locally-recognized aesthetic value (e.g., touristic attractions/common subjects for art such as whales). Habitat-forming species are not included in this definition of iconic species, nor are species that are harvested solely for economic or utilitarian purposes (even though they may be iconic to a sector or individual). This sub-goal assesses how well those species are conserved.

Model

The Iconic Species model measures the percentage of iconic species in each extinction risk category. Species list is drawn from the World Wildlife Fund’s global and regional lists for Priority Species (especially important to people for their health, livelihoods, and/or culture) and Flagship Species (‘charismatic’ and/or well-known). Threat weights were assigned based on the IUCN threat categories status of each species.

Reference points

The reference point is to have the risk status of all assessed species as Least Concern.

Data used in model

Status & trend

IUCN extinction risk (ico_spp_iucn_status): IUCN extinction risk category for iconic species located within each region

Pressure

Coastal chemical pollution (po_chemicals_3nm): Modeled chemical pollution within 3nm of coastline from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Coastal nutrient pollution (po_nutrients_3nm): Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption

High bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_hb): The presence of destructive artisanal blast and poison (cyanide) fishing.

High bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_hb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 5 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Intertidal habitat destruction (hd_intertidal): Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction

Marine plastics (po_trash): Global marine plastic pollution

Nonindigenous species (sp_alien): Measure of harmful invasive species

Ocean acidification (cc_acid): Ocean acidification pressure scaled using biological thresholds

Sea surface temperature (cc_sst): Sea surface temperature anomalies

Subtidal hardbottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_hb): High bycatch artisanal fishing practices (blast fishing) as a proxy for subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction

Targeted harvest of cetaceans and marine turtles (fp_targetharvest): Targeted harvest of cetaceans and marine turtles

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Artisanal fisheries management effectiveness (fp_mora_artisanal): Quality of management of small-scale fishing for artisanal and recreational purposes

CITES signatories (g_cites): Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) signatories

Commercial fishing management (fp_mora): Regulations and management of commerical fishing

EEZ protected marine areas (fishing preservation) (fp_mpa_eez): Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ)

EEZ protected marine areas (habitat preservation) (hd_mpa_eez): Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ)

Management of habitat to protect fisheries biodiversity (fp_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of habitat to protect habitat biodiversity (hd_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of waters to preserve biodiversity (po_water): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions

Measure of ecological integrity (species_diversity_eez): Marine species condition (species subgoal status score) as a proxy for ecological integrity

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Sense of Place: Lasting Special Places

Goal Description

Sense of Place goal tries to capture the aspects of the coastal and marine system that people value as part of their cultural identity. This definition includes people living near the ocean and those who live far from it but still derive a sense of identity or value from knowing particular places or species exist. The sub-goal of Lasting Special Places focuses on those geographic locations that hold particular value for aesthetic, spiritual, cultural, recreational or existence reasons, and assesses how well they are protected. A score of 100 means the species and places important for cultural identity are protected and conserved.

Model

The model measures the percentage of coastal marine protected area and protected coastline in each country, against a reference percentage. We focus only on coastal waters (within 3nmi of shore) for marine special places because it was assumed that lasting special places are primarily in coastal areas; we wanted our estimates of % area protected to be bounded to this coastal region. For coastlines, we focused only on the first km-wide strip of land as a way to increase the likelihood that the area being protected by terrestrial parks is connected to the marine system in some way.

Reference points

Assuming that all countries have roughly the same percentage of their coastal waters and coastline that qualify as lasting special places. In other words, they all have the same reference target (as a percentage of the total area). The target reference level is 30% of area protected.

Data used in model

Status & trend

Inland area (rgn_area_inland1km): Inland area of OHI regions within 1km of shoreline

Inland coastal protected areas (lsp_prot_area_inland1km): Protected areas located 1 km inland

Offshore area (rgn_area_offshore3nm): Offshore area of OHI regions within 3nm of shoreline

Offshore coastal protected areas (lsp_prot_area_offshore3nm): Protected areas located 3nm offshore

Pressure

Coastal chemical pollution (po_chemicals_3nm): Modeled chemical pollution within 3nm of coastline from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Coastal nutrient pollution (po_nutrients_3nm): Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption

Intertidal habitat destruction (hd_intertidal): Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction

Marine plastics (po_trash): Global marine plastic pollution

Nonindigenous species (sp_alien): Measure of harmful invasive species

Sea level rise (cc_slr): Sea level rise pressure

Subtidal hardbottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_hb): High bycatch artisanal fishing practices (blast fishing) as a proxy for subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Management of habitat to protect habitat biodiversity (hd_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of waters to preserve biodiversity (po_water): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Clean Waters

Goal Description

People value marine waters that are free of pollution and debris for aesthetic and health reasons. Contamination of waters comes from oil spills, chemicals, eutrophication, algal blooms, disease pathogens (e.g., fecal coliform, viruses, and parasites from sewage outflow), floating trash, and mass kills of organisms due to pollution. People are sensitive to these phenomena occurring in areas that they access for recreation or other purposes as well as for simply knowing that clean waters exist. The Clean Water goal captures the degree to which local waters are unpolluted by natural and human-made causes. This goal scores highest when the contamination level is zero.

Model

CW goal score is calculated as the geometric mean of its four components: eutrophication (nutrients), chemicals, pathogens and marine debris. They are meant to represent a comprohensive list of contamination categories that are commonly considered in assessments of coastal clean waters and for which we could obtain datasets. Chemical pollution was measured as the average of land-based organic and inorganic pollution from agricultural pesticide use and runoff from impervious surfaces, respectively, and ocean-based pollution from commercial shipping and ports. The modeled input of land-based nitrogen input from (Halpern et al. 2008) was used as a proxy for nutrient input. Due to a lack of information on direct measurements of human pathogen in the coastal water, we used a proxy measure for pathogen: the number of people in coastal areas without access to improved sanitation facilities, assuming that locations with fewer people with access to improved facilities would lead to a a higher likelihood of coastal water contamination from human pathogens. The status of trash pollution was estimated using globally-available coastal beach cleanup data from the Ocean Conservancy, which records the weight of trash per year that were collected (Halpern 2012).

Reference points

The reference point is when the contamination level is zero for all components.

Data used in model

Status & trend

Chemical pollution trend (cw_chemical_trend): Trends in chemical pollution, based on commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution) within EEZ

Coastal chemical pollution (po_chemicals_3nm): Modeled chemical pollution within 3nm of coastline from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Coastal nutrient pollution (po_nutrients_3nm): Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption

Marine plastics (po_trash): Global marine plastic pollution

Nutrient pollution trend (cw_nutrient_trend): Trends in nutrient pollution, based on fertilizer consumption as a proxy for nutrient pollution

Pathogen pollution (po_pathogens): Percent of population without access to improved sanitation facilities as a proxy for pathogen pollution

Pathogen pollution trend (cw_pathogen_trend): Trends in percent of population without access to improved sanitation facilities as a proxy for pathogen pollution

Plastic trash trends (cw_trash_trend): Trends in trash estimated using improperly disposed of plastics

Pressure

Coastal chemical pollution (po_chemicals_3nm): Modeled chemical pollution within 3nm of coastline from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Coastal nutrient pollution (po_nutrients_3nm): Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption

Marine plastics (po_trash): Global marine plastic pollution

Pathogen pollution (po_pathogens): Percent of population without access to improved sanitation facilities as a proxy for pathogen pollution

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Management of waters to preserve biodiversity (po_water): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Biodiversity: Species

Goal Description

People value biodiversity in particular for its existence value. The risk of species extinction generates great emotional and moral concern for many people. As such, Biodiversity goal assesses the conservation status of species based on the best available global data. This sub-goal of Species assesses the health of all marine species present in a region, including endangered species and species in relatively good conditions. The presence of higher-risk species leads to a higher score.

For Global assessments….

Model & Data

The Species model measures the average threat status, defined by the IUCN Red List, of species in each country, weighted by each species’ area of distribution within the country’s EEZ. The spatial resolution is 0.5 degree.

Species list and information on their extinction risks came from three sources:

  • marine species from IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
  • seabirds using distributions from Birdlife International (BirdLife International and NatureServe 2012).
  • AquaMaps where neither IUCN nor BirdLife International distributions were available (Kaschner et al. 2013)

Below are the data sets for this goal.

Reference points

The upper reference point for the Species sub-goal is to have all species at a risk status of Least Concern. We also scaled the lower end of the goal to be 0 when 75% species are extinct, a level comparable to the five documented mass extinctions66 and would constitute a catastrophic loss of biodiversity.

Data used in model

Status & trend

Average species condition (spp_status): Species condition based on average of IUCN threat categories

Average species condition trend (spp_trend): Species trends based on average of IUCN population trend data

Pressure

Chemical pollution (po_chemicals): Modeled chemical pollution within EEZ from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Genetic escapes (sp_genetic): Introduced mariculture species (Mariculture Sustainability Index) as a proxy for genetic escapes

High bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_hb): The presence of destructive artisanal blast and poison (cyanide) fishing.

High bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_hb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 5 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Intertidal habitat destruction (hd_intertidal): Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction

Low bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_lb): Extent of artisanal fishing (including: artisanal, subsistence, and recreational catch)

Low bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_lb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 2 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Marine plastics (po_trash): Global marine plastic pollution

Nonindigenous species (sp_alien): Measure of harmful invasive species

Nutrient pollution (po_nutrients): Modeled nutrient pollution within 3nm of coastline based on fertilizer consumption

Ocean acidification (cc_acid): Ocean acidification pressure scaled using biological thresholds

Sea surface temperature (cc_sst): Sea surface temperature anomalies

Subtidal hardbottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_hb): High bycatch artisanal fishing practices (blast fishing) as a proxy for subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction

Subtidal soft bottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_sb): Demersal destructive commercial fishing practices (i.e., trawling) in soft bottom habitat as a proxy for soft bottom habitat destruction

Targeted harvest of cetaceans and marine turtles (fp_targetharvest): Targeted harvest of cetaceans and marine turtles

UV radiation (cc_uv): Modeled UV radiation

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Artisanal fisheries management effectiveness (fp_mora_artisanal): Quality of management of small-scale fishing for artisanal and recreational purposes

CITES signatories (g_cites): Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) signatories

Commercial fishing management (fp_mora): Regulations and management of commerical fishing

EEZ protected marine areas (fishing preservation) (fp_mpa_eez): Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ)

EEZ protected marine areas (habitat preservation) (hd_mpa_eez): Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ)

Management of habitat to protect fisheries biodiversity (fp_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of habitat to protect habitat biodiversity (hd_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of mariculture to preserve biodiversity (g_mariculture): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: mariculture related questions

Management of tourism to preserve biodiversity (g_tourism): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions

Management of waters to preserve biodiversity (po_water): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores


Biodiversity: Habitats

Goal Description

Habitats conditions are considered as a proxy for condition of the broad suite of species that depend on them. The Habitats sub-goal includes all habitats in the study area, and assess their health condition and coverage area.

Model & Data

The Habitat model assessed all habitats for which at least some global data were available, specifically: mangroves, coral reefs, seagrass beds, salt marshes, sea ice edge, and subtidal soft-bottom habitats. Status was calculated as the average of the condition estimates for each habitat present in a region, measured as the loss of habitat and/or percent degradation of remaining habitat.

Below are the data sets for this goal.

Reference points

A temporal reference point (ie. coverage data of a historical point) was used for each type of habitat. We generally considered the reference years to be between 1980-1995, although these varied by habitat due to data availability.

Data used in model

Status & trend

Habitat condition (hab_health): Current condition of habitat relative to historical condition

Habitat condition trend (hab_trend): Estimated change in habitat condition

Habitat extent (hab_extent): Area of habitats: mangrove, saltmarsh, seagrass, soft bottom, seaice, coral

Pressure

Coastal chemical pollution (po_chemicals_3nm): Modeled chemical pollution within 3nm of coastline from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution)

Coastal nutrient pollution (po_nutrients_3nm): Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption

High bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_hb): The presence of destructive artisanal blast and poison (cyanide) fishing.

High bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_hb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 5 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Intertidal habitat destruction (hd_intertidal): Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction

Low bycatch due to artisanal fishing (fp_art_lb): Extent of artisanal fishing (including: artisanal, subsistence, and recreational catch)

Low bycatch due to commercial fishing (fp_com_lb): Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 2 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity

Nonindigenous species (sp_alien): Measure of harmful invasive species

Ocean acidification (cc_acid): Ocean acidification pressure scaled using biological thresholds

Sea level rise (cc_slr): Sea level rise pressure

Sea surface temperature (cc_sst): Sea surface temperature anomalies

Subtidal hardbottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_hb): High bycatch artisanal fishing practices (blast fishing) as a proxy for subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction

Subtidal soft bottom habitat destruction (hd_subtidal_sb): Demersal destructive commercial fishing practices (i.e., trawling) in soft bottom habitat as a proxy for soft bottom habitat destruction

UV radiation (cc_uv): Modeled UV radiation

Weakness of governance (ss_wgi): Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores

Weakness of social progress (ss_spi): Inverse of Social Progress Index scores

Resilience

Artisanal fisheries management effectiveness (fp_mora_artisanal): Quality of management of small-scale fishing for artisanal and recreational purposes

Coastal protected marine areas (fishing preservation) (fp_mpa_coast): Protected marine areas within 3nm of coastline (lasting special places goal status score)

Coastal protected marine areas (habitat preservation) (hd_mpa_coast): Protected marine areas within 3nm of coastline (lasting special places goal status score)

Commercial fishing management (fp_mora): Regulations and management of commerical fishing

EEZ protected marine areas (fishing preservation) (fp_mpa_eez): Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ)

EEZ protected marine areas (habitat preservation) (hd_mpa_eez): Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ)

Management of habitat to protect fisheries biodiversity (fp_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of habitat to protect habitat biodiversity (hd_habitat): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions

Management of mariculture to preserve biodiversity (g_mariculture): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: mariculture related questions

Management of tourism to preserve biodiversity (g_tourism): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions

Management of waters to preserve biodiversity (po_water): Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions

Measure of coastal ecological integrity (species_diversity_3nm): Marine species condition (same calculation and data as the species subgoal status score) calculated within 3 nm of shoreline as a proxy for ecological integrity

Measure of ecological integrity (species_diversity_eez): Marine species condition (species subgoal status score) as a proxy for ecological integrity

Social Progress Index (res_spi): Social Progress Index scores

Strength of governance (wgi_all): World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores





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