Data layers used in the OHI 2019 global assessment

These data layers were used to calculate the OHI 2019 assessment. Clicking on the layer name in the “Layer” variable will provide a full description of the data layer (as well as a link to the actual data). The “Description” variable provides links to the code used to create the data layers (on Github when available).

Layer Description Dimension References 2019 Updates
Artisanal fisheries opportunity The opportunity for artisanal and recreational fishing based on the quality of management of the small-scale fishing sector (data prep) AO Mora et al. (2009) none
Economic need for artisanal fishing Inverse of per capita purchasing power parity (PPP) adjusted gross domestic product (GDP): GDPpcPPP as a proxy for subsistence fishing need (data prep) AO World Bank (2018) additional year of GDP data (2018)
Habitat extent of coral Area of coral habitat (data prep) CP UNEP-WCMC (2018) UNEP data updated to version 4
Habitat extent of seaice Area of seaice (edge and shoreline) habitat (data prep) CP Cavalieri et al. (1996) additional year of data (2019)
Habitat condition of coral Current condition of coral habitat relative to historical condition (data prep) CP, HAB Bruno & Selig (2007); Schutte et al. (2010) none
Habitat condition trend of coral Estimated trend in coral condition (data prep) CP, HAB Bruno & Selig (2007); Schutte et al. (2010) none
Habitat condition of seaice Current condition of seaice habitat relative to historical condition (data prep) CP, HAB Cavalieri et al. (1996) none
Habitat condition trend of seaice Estimated trend in seaice condition (data prep) CP, HAB Cavalieri et al. (1996) additional year of data (2019)
Habitat extent of mangrove Area of mangrove habitat (data prep) CS, CP Hamilton & Casey (2016) none
Habitat extent of saltmarsh Area of saltmarsh habitat (data prep) CS, CP Dahl (2011); Eionet (2008); Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2004); New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007); UNEP-WCMC (2017) UNEP data updated to version 6
Habitat extent of seagrass Area of seagrass habitat (data prep) CS, CP Short & UNEP-WCMC (2018) UNEP data updated to version 6
Habitat condition of mangrove Current condition of mangrove habitat relative to historical condition (data prep) CS, HAB, CP United Nations (2007) none
Habitat condition trend of mangrove Estimated trend in mangrove condition (data prep) CS, HAB, CP Hamilton & Casey (2016) none
Habitat condition of saltmarsh Current condition of saltmarsh habitat relative to historical condition (data prep) CS, HAB, CP Bridgham et al. (2006); Dahl (2011); Eionet (2008); Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2004); New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007) none
Habitat condition trend of saltmarsh Estimated trend in saltmarsh condition (data prep) CS, HAB, CP Bridgham et al. (2006); Dahl (2011); Eionet (2008); Joint Nature Conservation Committee (2004); New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007) none
Habitat condition of seagrass Current condition of seagrass habitat relative to historical condition (data prep) CS, HAB, CP Hemminga & Duarte (2000); Waycott et al. (2009) none
Habitat condition trend of seagrass Estimated trend in seagrass condition (data prep) CS, HAB, CP Short et al. (2011); Waycott et al. (2009) none
Chemical pollution trend Trends in chemical pollution, based on commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution) within EEZ (data prep) CW Halpern et al. (2008); Halpern et al. (2015a); Homer et al. (2004); United Nations (2016) none
Nutrient pollution trend Trends in nutrient pollution, using fertilizer consumption as a proxy for nutrient pollution (data prep) CW Halpern et al. (2008); Halpern et al. (2015a); Homer et al. (2004); United Nations (2016) none
Pathogen pollution trend Trends in percent of population without access to improved sanitation facilities as a proxy for pathogen pollution (data prep) CW WHO-UNICEF (2019) two additional years of data (2016 & 2017)
Plastic trash trends Trends in trash estimated using improperly disposed of plastics (data prep) CW Jambeck et al. (2015) none
Coastal chemical pollution Modeled chemical pollution within 3nm of coastline from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution) (data prep) CW, pressure Halpern et al. (2008); Halpern et al. (2015a); Homer et al. (2004); United Nations (2016) none
Coastal nutrient pollution Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption (data prep) CW, pressure Halpern et al. (2008); Halpern et al. (2015a); Homer et al. (2004); United Nations (2016) none
Pathogen pollution Percent of population without access to improved sanitation facilities as a proxy for pathogen pollution (data prep) CW, pressure WHO-UNICEF (2019) two additional years of data (2016 & 2017)
Marine plastics Global marine plastic pollution (data prep) CW, pressure Eriksen et al. (2014) none
Economic status scores Calculated using corrected revenue data for several marine sectors (data not updated since 2013) (data prep) ECO Kaufmann et al. (2010); O’Connor et al. (2009); United Nations (2013c); United Nations (2013b); United Nations (2013a); United Nations (2012); World Bank (2016) eliminated calculation, now just provide results as placeholder (not updated since 2013)
Economic trend scores Calculated using change in revenue for several marine sectors (data not updated since 2013) (data prep) ECO Kaufmann et al. (2010); O’Connor et al. (2009); United Nations (2013c); United Nations (2013b); United Nations (2013a); United Nations (2012); World Bank (2014a); World Bank (2016) eliminated calculation, now just provide results as placeholder (not updated since 2013)
Sectors in each region Proportion of jobs within each marine sector (data prep) ECO, LIV France (2011); O’Connor et al. (2009); Thorbourne (2011); United Nations personal communication (2011); WTTC (2013) none
B/Bmsy estimates The ratio of fish population abundance compared to the abundance required to deliver maximum sustainable yield (RAM and catch-MSY data) (data prep 1, data prep 2, data prep 3) FIS Anderson (2018); Free (2017); Martell & Froese (2013); Database (2018); Ricard et al. (2012); Rosenberg et al. (2014); Watson (2019) additional RAM species, now include additional metrics of stock performance
Fishery catch data Mean commercial catch for each OHI region (averaged across years) (data prep) FIS Watson (2019) data updated (same range of years)
Food provision weights Proportion of wild caught fisheries relative to total food production (e.g., fisheries and mariculture) (data prep) FP United Nations (2018b); United Nations (2018a) additional year of data
Habitat condition of softbottom Current condition of softbottom habitat, based on demersal destructive fishing practices (e.g., trawling) (data prep) HAB Watson & Tidd (2018) none
Habitat condition trend of softbottom Estimated change in softbottom condition, based on trends in demersal destructive fishing practices (e.g., trawling) (data prep) HAB Watson & Tidd (2018) none
IUCN extinction risk IUCN extinction risk category for iconic species located within each region (data prep) ICO Halpern et al. (2012); IUCN (2019b) additional year of data (2019)
Livelihood status scores Calculated using adjusted job and wage data in several marine sectors (data not updated since 2013) (data prep) LIV France (2011); Kaufmann et al. (2010); O’Connor et al. (2009); Oostendorp & Freeman (2012); Thorbourne (2011); United Nations personal communication (2011); World Bank (2014a); World Bank (2014b); World Bank (2016); WTTC (2013) none
Livelihood trend scores Calculated using change in adjusted job and wage data in several marine sectors (data not updated since 2013) (data prep) LIV France (2011); Kaufmann et al. (2010); O’Connor et al. (2009); Oostendorp & Freeman (2012); Thorbourne (2011); United Nations personal communication (2011); World Bank (2014b); World Bank (2016); World Bank (2014c); WTTC (2013) none
Inland coastal protected areas Protected areas located 1 km inland (data prep) LSP Lewis et al. (2017); IUCN (2019) additional year of data
Offshore coastal protected areas Protected areas located 3nm offshore (data prep) LSP Lewis et al. (2017); IUCN (2019) additional year of data
Inland 1km area Inland area of OHI regions within 1km of shoreline (data prep) LSP Claus et al. (2012); ESRI (2010); Halpern et al. (2012); Halpern et al. (2015b) none
Offshore 3nm area Offshore area of OHI regions within 3nm of shoreline (data prep) LSP Claus et al. (2012); ESRI (2010); Halpern et al. (2012); Halpern et al. (2015b) none
Potential tonnes of mariculture harvest Tonnes of mariculture harvest potential for each region based on biological variables and growth performance indices. Taken from Gentry et al. 2017 and adopted for the OHI. (data prep) MAR Gentry et al. (2019) new data source that describes mariculture potential
Mariculture harvest Tonnes of mariculture harvest (data prep) MAR United Nations (2018a) additional year of data (2017)
Mariculture sustainability score Mariculture sustainability based on the Mariculture Sustainability Index (MSI) (data prep) MAR Trujillo (2008) none
Habitat extent of rocky reef Area of rocky reef habitat (data prep) NP Halpern et al. (2008) none
Blast fishing Artisanal blast fishing (data prep) NP Burke et al. (2011) none
Poison fishing Artisanal poison (cyanide) fishing (data prep) NP Burke et al. (2011) none
Relative natural product harvest value Relative importance of six marine commodities (coral, fish oil, seaweed and plants, shells, sponges, ornamental fish) within each region determined by dividing the max USD value (determined across most recent 10 years of data) of each product and dividing by the sum of the max USD values of all products (data prep) NP UN-FAO (2019) new year of FAO data (2016); adjusted model to improve stability
Natural product harvest Yield in metric tonnes of six marine commodities (coral, fish oil, seaweed and plants, shells, sponges, ornamental fish) (data prep) NP UN-FAO (2019) new year of FAO data (2016); adjusted model to improve stability
Relative natural product harvest tonnes Tonnes of harvest of each commodity relative to maximum harvest (with 35% buffer) of the commodity within the region observed across years (data prep) NP UN-FAO (2019) new year of FAO data (2016); adjusted model to improve stability
Ocean acidification Pressure due to increasing ocean acidification, scaled using biological thresholds (data prep) pressure Feely et al. (2009) additional year of data (projected)
Sea level rise Pressure due to rising mean sea level (data prep) pressure AVISO (2018) additional year of data (2018)
Sea surface temperature Presure due to increasing extreme sea surface temperature events (data prep) pressure NOAA (2018) none
UV radiation Pressure due to increasing frequency of UV anomolies (data prep) pressure Jari Hovila (2013) additional year of data
High bycatch due to artisanal fishing Pressure due to artisanal high bycatch fishing identified by discard tonnes and standardized by NPP (data prep 1, data prep 2) pressure Behrenfeld & Falkowski (1997); O’Malley; Watson (2019) data updated (same range of years)
Low bycatch due to artisanal fishing Pressure due to artisanal low bycatch fishing identified by reported and IUU tonnes and standardized by NPP (data prep 1, data prep 2) pressure Behrenfeld & Falkowski (1997); O’Malley; Watson (2019) data updated (same range of years)
High bycatch due to commercial fishing Pressure due to industrial high bycatch fishing identified by discard tonnes and standardized by NPP (data prep 1, data prep 2) pressure Behrenfeld & Falkowski (1997); O’Malley; Watson (2019) data updated (same range of years)
Low bycatch due to commercial fishing Pressure due to industrial low bycatch fishing identified by reported and IUU tonnes and standardized by NPP (data prep 1, data prep 2) pressure Behrenfeld & Falkowski (1997); O’Malley; Watson (2019) data updated (same range of years)
Targeted harvest of cetaceans and marine turtles Targeted harvest of cetaceans and marine turtles (data prep) pressure United Nations (2019) additional year of data (2017)
Intertidal habitat destruction Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction (data prep) pressure Center For International Earth Science Information Network-CIESIN-Columbia University (2017) same UN pop data, but fixed errors in inland raster
Subtidal hardbottom habitat destruction Presence of blast fishing as an estimate of subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction (data prep) pressure Burke et al. (2011) none
Subtidal soft bottom habitat destruction Pressure on soft-bottom habitats due to demersal destructive commercial fishing practices (e.g., trawling) (data prep) pressure Halpern et al. (2008); Watson & Tidd (2018) none
Chemical pollution Modeled chemical pollution within EEZ from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution) (data prep) pressure Halpern et al. (2008); Halpern et al. (2015a); Homer et al. (2004); United Nations (2016) none
Nutrient pollution Modeled nutrient pollution within 3nm of coastline based on fertilizer consumption (data prep) pressure Halpern et al. (2008); Halpern et al. (2015a); Homer et al. (2004); United Nations (2016) none
Nonindigenous species Measure of harmful invasive species (data prep) pressure Molnar et al. (2008) none
Genetic escapes Introduced mariculture species (Mariculture Sustainability Index) as a proxy for genetic escapes (data prep) pressure Trujillo (2008) additional year of FAO mariculture yield data (2017); and updated reference point calculation methods
Weakness of social progress Inverse of Social Progress Index scores (data prep) pressure Social Progress Index (2019); Stern et al. (2018) additional year of data
Weakness of governance Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores (data prep) pressure Kaufmann et al. (2010); WorldBank (2018) additional year of data (2017)
Fisheries management index Country scale regulations and management of fishing (data prep) resilience Melnychuk et al. (2017) New data source: Melnychuk et al. (2017) fisheries management index data
Management of habitat to protect fisheries biodiversity Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions (data prep) resilience Convention on Biological Diversity (2005) none
Artisanal fisheries management effectiveness Quality of management of small-scale fishing for artisanal and recreational purposes (data prep) resilience Mora et al. (2009) none
Coastal protected marine areas (fishing preservation) Protected marine areas within 3nm of coastline (lasting special places goal status score) (data prep) resilience Lewis et al. (2017); IUCN (2019) additional year of data (2019)
EEZ protected marine areas (fishing preservation) Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ) (data prep) resilience Lewis et al. (2017); IUCN (2019) additional year of data (2019)
CITES signatories Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) signatories (data prep) resilience CITES (2015) none
Management of mariculture to preserve biodiversity Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: mariculture related questions (data prep) resilience Convention on Biological Diversity (2005) none
Mariculture Sustainability Index Mariculture practice assessment criteria from the Mariculture Sustainability Index (MSI) (data prep) resilience Trujillo (2008) none
Management of tourism to preserve biodiversity Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions (data prep) resilience Convention on Biological Diversity (2005) none
Management of habitat to protect habitat biodiversity Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions (data prep) resilience Convention on Biological Diversity (2005) none
Coastal protected marine areas (habitat preservation) Protected marine areas within 3nm of coastline (lasting special places goal status score) (data prep) resilience Lewis et al. (2017); IUCN (2019) additional year of data
EEZ protected marine areas (habitat preservation) Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ) (data prep) resilience IUCN (2019) additional year of data
Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) Competitiveness in achieving sustained economic prosperity (data prep) resilience Schwab (2017a) none
Economic diversity Sector evenness based on Shannon’s Diversity Index calculated on the proportion of jobs in each sector as a measure of economic diversity (data prep) resilience France (2011); O’Connor et al. (2009); Thorbourne (2011); United Nations personal communication (2011); WTTC (2013) none
Management of waters to preserve biodiversity Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: clean water management related questions (data prep) resilience Convention on Biological Diversity (2005) none
Social Progress Index Social Progress Index scores (data prep) resilience Social Progress Index (2019); Stern et al. (2018) additional year of data
Measure of coastal ecological integrity Marine species condition (same calculation and data as the species subgoal status score) calculated within 3 nm of shoreline as a proxy for ecological integrity (data prep) resilience Birdlife International (2018); IUCN (2019b); IUCN (2019a) additional year of data
Measure of ecological integrity Marine species condition (species subgoal status score) as a proxy for ecological integrity (data prep) resilience Birdlife International (2018); IUCN (2019b); IUCN (2019a) additional year of data
Strength of governance World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores (data prep) resilience Kaufmann et al. (2010) additional year of data (2017)
Region areas based on EEZ boundaries Area of Ocean Health Index regions modified from exclusive economic zones, weights used to calculate global score (data prep) spatial Claus et al. (2012); ESRI (2010); Halpern et al. (2012); Halpern et al. (2015b) none
OHI region id Subset of regions that are not deleted or disputed (data prep) spatial Claus et al. (2012); ESRI (2010); Halpern et al. (2012); Halpern et al. (2015b) none
Regions Regions by type (eez, subocean, unclaimed) (data prep) spatial Claus et al. (2012); ESRI (2010); Halpern et al. (2012); Halpern et al. (2015b) none
Uninhabited regions Regions with low and no number of inhabitants (also identifies Southern Islands) (data prep) spatial Wikipedia none
Average species condition Overall measure of species condition based on IUCN status of species within each region (data prep) SPP Birdlife International (2018); IUCN (2019b); IUCN (2019a) additional year of data
Average species condition trend Overall measure of species condition trends based on change in IUCN status of species within each region (data prep) SPP Birdlife International (2018); IUCN (2019b); IUCN (2019a) additional year of data
Percent direct employment in tourism Percent direct employment in tourism (data prep) TR WTTC (2019) two additional years of data
Tourism sustainability index Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) (data prep) TR Schwab (2017b) none
US State Department travel warnings US State Department travel warnings (data prep) TR Government of Canada (2019); US Department of State (2018) updated data
Coastal protection weights Habitat extent multiplied by habitat protection rank for: coral, mangrove (offshore and inland 1km), saltmarsh, sea ice (shoreline), and seagrass (empty dataframe filled by functions.R in ohi-global) (data prep) weighting Tallis et al. (2011) none
Carbon storage weights Habitat extent multiplied by carbon storage capacity for: mangrove, saltmarsh, and seagrass (empty dataframe filled by functions.R in ohi-global) (data prep) weighting Laffoley & Grimsditch (2009) none
Habitat presence/absence List of habitats in each region (empty dataframe filled by functions.R in ohi-global) (data prep) weighting NA none

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