Data layers used in the OHI 2017 global assessment

These data layers were used to calculate the OHI 2017 assessment. Clicking on the layer name in the “Data layer” variable will provide a full description of the data layer (as well as a link to the actual data). The “Description” variable provides links to the scripts (on Github) used to create the data layers (when available).

Layer Description Dimension References 2017 Updates
Artisanal fisheries opportunity The opportunity for artisanal and recreational fishing based on the quality of management of the small-scale fishing sector (data prep) AO Mora et al. (2009) none
Economic need for artisanal fishing Per capita purchasing power parity (PPP) adjusted gross domestic product (GDP): GDPpcPPP as a proxy for subsistence fishing need (data prep) AO Bank (2016) additional year
Habitat extent of coral Area of coral habitat (data prep) CP Burke et al. (2011) none
Habitat extent of seaice Area of seaice (edge and shoreline) habitat (data prep) CP Cavalieri et al. (1996) additional year
Habitat condition of coral Current condition of coral habitat relative to historical condition (data prep) CP, HAB Bruno & Selig (2007); Schutte et al. (2010) none
Habitat condition trend of coral Estimated change in coral condition (data prep) CP, HAB Bruno & Selig (2007); Schutte et al. (2010) none
Habitat condition of seaice Current condition of seaice habitat relative to historical condition (data prep) CP, HAB Cavalieri et al. (1996) additional year
Habitat condition trend of seaice Estimated change in seaice condition (data prep) CP, HAB Cavalieri et al. (1996) additional year
Habitat extent of mangrove Area of mangrove habitat (data prep) CS, CP Hamilton & Casey (2016) none
Habitat extent of saltmarsh Area of saltmarsh habitat (data prep) CS, CP Bridgham et al. (2006); Dahl (2011); Eionet (2008); Committee (2004); New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007) none
Habitat extent of seagrass Area of seagrass habitat (data prep) CS, CP UNEP-WCMC & Short (2005) none
Habitat condition of mangrove Current condition of mangrove habitat relative to historical condition (data prep) CS, HAB, CP Nations (2007) none
Habitat condition trend of mangrove Estimated change in mangrove condition (data prep) CS, HAB, CP Hamilton & Casey (2016) none
Habitat condition of saltmarsh Current condition of saltmarsh habitat relative to historical condition (data prep) CS, HAB, CP Bridgham et al. (2006); Dahl (2011); Eionet (2008); Committee (2004); New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007) none
Habitat condition trend of saltmarsh Estimated change in saltmarsh condition (data prep) CS, HAB, CP Bridgham et al. (2006); Dahl (2011); Eionet (2008); Committee (2004); New Zealand Ministry for the Environment (2007) none
Habitat condition of seagrass Current condition of seagrass habitat relative to historical condition (data prep) CS, HAB, CP Hemminga & Duarte (2000); Waycott et al. (2009) none
Habitat condition trend of seagrass Estimated change in seagrass condition (data prep) CS, HAB, CP Short et al. (2011); Waycott et al. (2009) none
Chemical pollution trend Trends in chemical pollution, based on commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution) within EEZ (data prep) CW Halpern et al. (2008); Homer et al. (2004); Nations (2016c); Halpern et al. (2015a) none
Nutrient pollution trend Trends in nutrient pollution, based on fertilizer consumption as a proxy for nutrient pollution (data prep) CW Halpern et al. (2008); Nations (2016b) none
Pathogen pollution trend Trends in percent of population without access to improved sanitation facilities as a proxy for pathogen pollution (data prep) CW WHO-UNICEF (2015) none
Plastic trash trends Trends in trash estimated using improperly disposed of plastics (data prep) CW Jambeck et al. (2015) none
Coastal chemical pollution Modeled chemical pollution within 3nm of coastline from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution) (data prep) CW, pressure Halpern et al. (2008); Homer et al. (2004); Nations (2016c); Halpern et al. (2015a) none
Coastal nutrient pollution Modeled nutrient pollution within EEZ based on fertilizer consumption (data prep) CW, pressure Halpern et al. (2008); Nations (2016b) none
Pathogen pollution Percent of population without access to improved sanitation facilities as a proxy for pathogen pollution (data prep) CW, pressure WHO-UNICEF (2015) none
Marine plastics Global marine plastic pollution (data prep) CW, pressure Eriksen et al. (2014) none
GDP Gross Domestic Product (GDP) (adjustment for economies trend calculation) (data prep) ECO Bank (2016) none
Adjustment factor for revenue (current) GDP during the current status year of each sector/region (World Bank) (calculate economies status) (data prep) ECO Nations (2013b); Nations (2013a); Nations (2013c); O’Connor et al. (2009); Nations (2012); WTTC (2013) none
Revenue, most current value Revenue data for the most recent year of data (relative to the assessment year) for each sector/region (economies status calcuation) (data prep) ECO Nations (2013b); Nations (2013a); Nations (2013c); O’Connor et al. (2009); Nations (2012); WTTC (2013) none
Adjustment factor for revenue (reference) GDP during the reference year (i.e., earliest year of data) of each sector/region (World Bank) (calculate economies status) (data prep) ECO Nations (2013b); Nations (2013a); Nations (2013c); O’Connor et al. (2009); Nations (2012); WTTC (2013) none
Revenue, reference value Revenue data for the earliest year of each sector for each sector/region (economies status calculation) (data prep) ECO Nations (2013b); Nations (2013a); Nations (2013c); O’Connor et al. (2009); Nations (2012); WTTC (2013) none
Revenue for each sector and year Revenue for each sector, region, and year (economies trend calculation) (data prep) ECO Nations (2013b); Nations (2013a); Nations (2013c); O’Connor et al. (2009); Nations (2012); WTTC (2013) none
Revenue adjustment (GDP) GDP data used to adjust revenue values (within region sector weight for economies) (data prep) ECO Nations (2013b); Nations (2013a); Nations (2013c); O’Connor et al. (2009); Nations (2012); WTTC (2013) none
Sectors in each region Proportion of jobs within each sector (data prep) ECO, LIV NA none
B/Bmsy estimates The ratio of fish population abundance compared to the abundance required to deliver maximum sustainable yield (RAM data and catch-MSY) (data prep 1, data prep 2, data prep 3) FIS (‘RAM legacy stock assessment database v3.8’ 2017); Free (2017); Pauly & Zeller (2015) updates to RAM and SAUP, gapfilled RAM
Fishery catch data Mean commercial catch for each OHI region (averaged across years) (data prep) FIS Pauly & Zeller (2015) additional 4 years data
Food provision weights Proportion of wild caught fisheries relative to total food production (e.g., fisheries and mariculture) (data prep) FP Pauly & Zeller (2015); Nations (2016a) additional year mariculture data, additional 4 years fishery data
Habitat condition of softbottom Current condition of softbottom habitat (trawling fishing pressure used as proxy) (data prep) HAB Watson (2017) additional year
Habitat condition trend of softbottom Estimated change in softbottom condition (data prep) HAB Watson (2017) additional year
IUCN extinction risk IUCN extinction risk category for iconic species located within each region (data prep) ICO Halpern et al. (2012); IUCN (2016a) additional year, new methods
GDP per capita PPP Gross domestic product per person at purchasing power parity (correction for wage data across regions) (data prep) LIV Bank (2016) none
Adjustment factor for jobs (current) Percent employment during the current status year for each sector/region (calculate livelihoods jobs status) (data prep) LIV communication (2011); O’Connor et al. (2009); France (2011); Thorbourne (2011); WTTC (2013) none
Jobs, most current value Number of jobs in each sector and region for the most recent year of data (livelihoods status calculation) (data prep) LIV communication (2011); O’Connor et al. (2009); France (2011); Thorbourne (2011); WTTC (2013) none
Adjustment factor for jobs (reference) Percent employment during the reference year (i.e., earliest year of data) for each sector/region (calculate livelihoods jobs status) (data prep) LIV communication (2011); O’Connor et al. (2009); France (2011); Thorbourne (2011); WTTC (2013) none
Jobs, reference value Number of jobs in each sector and region for the reference year (earliest year of data for sector/region) of data (livelihoods status calculation) (data prep) LIV communication (2011); O’Connor et al. (2009); France (2011); Thorbourne (2011); WTTC (2013) none
Jobs for each sector and year Number of jobs in each sector, region, and year. (livelihoods jobs trend calculation) (data prep) LIV communication (2011); O’Connor et al. (2009); France (2011); Thorbourne (2011); WTTC (2013) none
Total human population Human population of OHI regions (used in livelihoods and economies goal to set values for regions with no humans) (data prep) LIV Kaufmann et al. (2010) none
Unemployment Unemployment data from the World Bank (livelihoods jobs trend adjusment) (data prep) LIV Bank (2014b) none
Adjustment factor for wages (current) Values are 1, no subsequent adjustments were made to the wage data (calculate livelihoods wages) (data prep) LIV Oostendorp & Freeman (2012) none
Wages, current value Wage data for the most recent year of data (relative to the assessment year) for each sector/region (livelihoods status calculation) (data prep) LIV Oostendorp & Freeman (2012) none
Adjustment factor for wages (reference) Values are 1, no subsequent adjustments were made to the wage data (calculate livelihoods wages) (data prep) LIV Oostendorp & Freeman (2012) none
Wages, reference value Wage data for the earliest year of data for each sector/region (livelihoods status calculation) (data prep) LIV Oostendorp & Freeman (2012) none
Wages for each sector and year Wages for each sector, region, and year (livelihoods wage trend calculation) (data prep) LIV Oostendorp & Freeman (2012) none
Adjusted workforce size Total labor force (number of people) from the World Bank (within region sector weight for livelihoods) (data prep) LIV Bank (2014a) none
Inland coastal protected areas Protected areas located 1 km inland (data prep) LSP UNEP (2015); UNEP-WCMC (2015) additional year
Offshore coastal protected areas Protected areas located 3nm offshore (data prep) LSP UNEP (2015); UNEP-WCMC (2015) additional year
Inland area Inland area of OHI regions within 1km of shoreline (data prep) LSP Claus et al. (2012); ESRI (2010); Halpern et al. (2012); Halpern et al. (2015b) none
Offshore area Offshore area of OHI regions within 3nm of shoreline (data prep) LSP Claus et al. (2012); ESRI (2010); Halpern et al. (2012); Halpern et al. (2015b) none
Inland coastal population Total coastal population within 25 miles of coast (data prep) MAR International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) et al. (2005); Claus et al. (2012); ESRI (2010); Halpern et al. (2012); Halpern et al. (2015b) additional year
Mariculture harvest Tonnes of mariculture harvest (data prep) MAR Nations (2016a) additional year
Mariculture sustainability score Mariculture sustainability based on the Mariculture Sustainability Index (MSI) (data prep) MAR Trujillo (2008) additional year mariculture data (weights), but no updates to species sustainability
Habitat extent of rocky reef Area of rocky reef habitat (data prep) NP Halpern et al. (2008) none
Areas of blast fishing Destructive artisanal blast fishing (data prep) NP Burke et al. (2011) none
Areas of poison fishing Destructive artisanal poison (cyanide) fishing (data prep) NP Burke et al. (2011) none
Relative harvest value Relative importance of six marine commodities (coral, fish oil, seaweed and plants, shells, sponges, ornamental fish) within each region determined by dividing the max USD value (determined across most recent 10 years of data) of each product and dividing by the sum of the max USD values of all products (data prep) NP Nations (2016b) none
Natural product harvest Yield in metric tonnes of six marine commodities (coral, fish oil, seaweed and plants, shells, sponges, ornamental fish) (data prep) NP Nations (2016b) none
Relative harvest tonnes Tonnes of harvest of each commodity relative to maximum harvest (with 35% buffer) of the commodity within the region observed across years (data prep) NP Nations (2016b) none
Ocean acidification Ocean acidification pressure scaled using biological thresholds (data prep) pressure Feely et al. (2009) additional year
Sea level rise Sea level rise pressure (data prep) pressure AVISO (2016) additional year
Sea surface temperature Sea surface temperature anomalies (data prep) pressure NOAA (2015)
UV radiation Modeled UV radiation (data prep) pressure Thaminnen & Arola (2013) additional year
High bycatch due to artisanal fishing Presence of destructive artisanal blast and poison (cyanide) fishing. (data prep) pressure Burke et al. (2011) none
Low bycatch due to artisanal fishing Extent of artisanal fishing (including: artisanal, subsistence, and recreational catch) (data prep 1, data prep 2) pressure Watson (2017) new data source, additional 4 years data fishery data, additional year NPP data
High bycatch due to commercial fishing Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 5 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity (data prep 1, data prep 2) pressure Watson (2017); Behrenfeld & Falkowski (1997) new data source, additional 4 years data fishery data, additional year NPP data
Low bycatch due to commercial fishing Modeled destructive commercial fishing practices by 2 gear types and scaled by Net Primary Productivity (data prep 1, data prep 2) pressure Watson (2017); Behrenfeld & Falkowski (1997) new data source, additional 4 years data fishery data, additional year NPP data
Targeted harvest of cetaceans and marine turtles Targeted harvest of cetaceans and marine turtles (data prep) pressure Nations (2016c) additional year
Intertidal habitat destruction Coastal population density (25 mi from shore) as a proxy for intertidal habitat destruction (data prep) pressure International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN) et al. (2005) improved source data, additional 5 years data
Subtidal hardbottom habitat destruction High bycatch artisanal fishing practices (blast fishing) as a proxy for subtidal hard bottom habitat destruction (data prep) pressure Burke et al. (2011) none
Subtidal soft bottom habitat destruction Demersal destructive commercial fishing practices (i.e., trawling) in soft bottom habitat as a proxy for soft bottom habitat destruction (data prep) pressure Pauly & Zeller (2015); Halpern et al. (2008) new data source, additional 4 years data fishery data
Chemical pollution Modeled chemical pollution within EEZ from commercial shipping traffic, ports and harbors, land-based pesticide use (organic pollution), and urban runoff (inorganic pollution) (data prep) pressure Halpern et al. (2008); Homer et al. (2004); Nations (2016c); Halpern et al. (2015a) none
Nutrient pollution Modeled nutrient pollution within 3nm of coastline based on fertilizer consumption (data prep) pressure Halpern et al. (2008); Nations (2016b) none
Nonindigenous species Measure of harmful invasive species (data prep) pressure Molnar et al. (2008) none
Genetic escapes Introduced mariculture species (Mariculture Sustainability Index) as a proxy for genetic escapes (data prep) pressure Trujillo (2008) additional year mariculture data, but no updates to Mariculture Sustainability Index
Weakness of social progress Inverse of Social Progress Index scores (data prep) pressure Porter (2014); Stern et al. (2016) additional year (plus, two back years of data)
Weakness of governance Inverse of World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores (data prep) pressure Kaufmann et al. (2010) additional year
Management of habitat to protect fisheries biodiversity Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions (data prep) resilience Biological Diversity (2005) none
Commercial fishing management Regulations and management of commerical fishing (data prep) resilience Mora et al. (2009) none
Artisanal fisheries management effectiveness Quality of management of small-scale fishing for artisanal and recreational purposes (data prep) resilience Mora et al. (2009) none
Coastal protected marine areas (fishing preservation) Protected marine areas within 3nm of coastline (lasting special places goal status score) (data prep) resilience UNEP-WCMC (2015); UNEP (2015) additional year
EEZ protected marine areas (fishing preservation) Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ) (data prep) resilience UNEP (2015); UNEP-WCMC (2015) additional year
CITES signatories Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) signatories (data prep) resilience CITES (2015) additional year
Management of mariculture to preserve biodiversity Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: mariculture related questions (data prep) resilience Biological Diversity (2005) none
Mariculture Sustainability Index Mariculture practice assessment criteria from the Mariculture Sustainability Index (MSI) (data prep) resilience Trujillo (2008) none
Management of tourism to preserve biodiversity Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions (data prep) resilience Biological Diversity (2005) none
Management of habitat to protect habitat biodiversity Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: habitat related questions (data prep) resilience Biological Diversity (2005) none
Coastal protected marine areas (habitat preservation) Protected marine areas within 3nm of coastline (lasting special places goal status score) (data prep) resilience UNEP (2015); UNEP-WCMC (2015) additional year
EEZ protected marine areas (habitat preservation) Protected marine areas within EEZ (lasting special places calculation applied to the entire EEZ) (data prep) resilience UNEP (2015); UNEP-WCMC (2015) additional year
Global Competitiveness Index (GCI) scores Competitiveness in achieving sustained economic prosperity (data prep) resilience Crotti & Misrahi (2015) additional year
Economic diversity Sector evenness based on Shannon’s Diversity Index calculated on the proportion of jobs in each sector as a measure of economic diversity (data prep) resilience NA none
Management of waters to preserve biodiversity Survey responses by country to the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Third National Report: tourism related questions (data prep) resilience Biological Diversity (2005) none
Social Progress Index Social Progress Index scores (data prep) resilience Porter (2014); Stern et al. (2016) new dataset
Measure of coastal ecological integrity Marine species condition (same calculation and data as the species subgoal status score) calculated within 3 nm of shoreline as a proxy for ecological integrity (data prep) resilience Kaschner et al. (2015); IUCN (2016b); IUCN (2016a) additional year
Measure of ecological integrity Marine species condition (species subgoal status score) as a proxy for ecological integrity (data prep) resilience Kaschner et al. (2015); IUCN (2016b); IUCN (2016a) additional year
Strength of governance World Governance Indicators (WGI) six combined scores (data prep) resilience Kaufmann et al. (2010) additional year
ISO country codes Lookup table of country codes (based on ISO 3166 country codes) and Ocean Health Index region identifiers (data prep) spatial NA none
Region areas based on EEZ boundaries Area of Ocean Health Index regions modified from exclusive economic zones (data prep) spatial Claus et al. (2012); ESRI (2010); Halpern et al. (2012); Halpern et al. (2015b) none
UN geopolitical region classifications UN geopolitical regions (3 levels), often used for gapfilling missing data (data prep) spatial NA none
OHI regions Subset of regions that are not deleted or disputed (data prep) spatial NA none
Regions Regions by type (eez, subocean, unclaimed) (data prep) spatial NA none
Average species condition Species condition based on average of IUCN threat categories (data prep) SPP Kaschner et al. (2015); IUCN (2016b); IUCN (2016a) additional year
Average species condition trend Species trends based on average of IUCN population trend data (data prep) SPP Kaschner et al. (2015); IUCN (2016b); IUCN (2016a) additional year
Percent direct employment in tourism Percent direct employment in tourism (data prep) TR WTTC (2016) additional year
Tourism sustainability index Tourism Competitiveness Index (TTCI) (data prep) TR Crotti & Misrahi (2015) additional year
US State Department travel warnings Countries with US State Department travel warnings (data prep) TR State (2016) additional year
Coastal protection weights Habitat extent multiplied by habitat protection rank for: coral, mangrove (offshore and inland 1km), saltmarsh, sea ice (shoreline), and seagrass (data prep) weighting Tallis et al. (2011) none
Carbon storage weights Habitat extent multiplied by carbon storage capacity for: mangrove, saltmarsh, and seagrass (data prep) weighting Laffoley & Grimsditch (2009) none
Habitat weights List of habitats in each region (data prep) weighting NA none

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