The following goal models are from the global assessment in 2014. These models should be modified when better data or indicators are available.

## Food Provision: Fisheries

Amount of sustainable wild-caught seafood compared to the max sustainable

\[ x_{FIS} = (\prod_{g=1}^{6} SS_{i,g}^{C_{i,g}})^\frac{1}{\sum{C_{i,g}}} \]

\(SS_{i,g}\) stock status score, based on B/Bmsy (biomass / maximum sustainable yield of biomass) and an underharvest penalty adjustment for reporting region \(i\) and taxonomic level \(g\)

\(C_{i,g}\) total catch for reporting region \(i\) and taxonomic level \(g\)

\(i\) OHI reporting region

\(g\) level of taxonomic grouping (ISSCAAP)

## Food Provision: Mariculture

Amount of sustainable farm-raised seafood compared to max sustainable

\[ x_{MAR} = \frac{Y_{c}}{Y_{r}} \]

\[ Y_{c} = \frac{\sum_{k=1}^{N} Y_{k} * S_{M,k}}{P_{c}} \]

\(Y\) = current sustainably harvested total yield, current [\(c\)] or reference [\(r\)]

\(S_{M,k}\) = Sustainability score for each species \(k\)

\(P_{c}\) = Coastal population within 100km

\(Y_{r} = max(Y_{c})\)

\(N\) = number of mariculture species

## Artisanal Fishing Opportunity

the opportunity to fish artisanally, independent of how many fish are caught

\[ x_{AO} = (1 - D_{U}) * S_{AO} \]

\[ D_{U} = (1 - NBI) * (1 - O_{AO}) \]

\(D_{U}\) = unmet demand

\(S_{AO}\) = sustainability of fishing methods

\(O_{AO}\) = access to artisanal fishing

\(NBI\) = unsatisfied basic needs as a percentage

## Natural Products

People access to coastal resources, whether or not they do actually fish in coastal waters

\[ x_{NP} = \frac{\sum_{p=1}^{N} w_p * x_p}{N} \]

\[ x_p = H_p * S_p \]

\[ S_p = 1 - (\frac{E + R}{N}) \]

\(w_p\) = proportional peak US dollar value of product \(p\)

\(x_p\) = sustainable-harvest score for product \(p\)

\(H_p\) = harvest yield for product \(p\)

\(S_p\) = sustainability of product \(p\)

\(E\) = exposure term

\(R\) = risk term

\(N\) = Number of Natural Products

products:aquaria fishes, corals, shells, sponges, seaweeds, fish oil

## Carbon Storage

Extent and condition of coastal habitats that store and sequester atmospheric carbon

\[ x_{CS} = \sum_{k=1}^{N} \frac{C_{c,k}}{C_{r,k}} * \frac{A_{c,k}}{A_{T}} \]

\(C_{.,k}\) = condition of habitat \(k\), current [\(c\)] or reference[\(r\)]

\(A_{.,k}\) = area of habitat \(k\), current [\(c\)] or total area covered by all habitats assessed [T]

\(N\) = number of habitats

habitats: seagrass beds, salt marshes, mangroves

## Coastal Protection

Protection from inundation or erosion compared to the local natural potential

\[ x_{CP} = \sum_{k=1}^{N} \alpha_{k} * \frac{C_{c,k}}{C_{r,k}} \]

\[ \alpha_{k} = \frac{w_{k}*A_{k}}{\sum{w_{k}*A_{k}}} \]

\[ w_{k} = \frac{r_{k}}{\sum{r_{k}}} \]

\(C_{.,k}\) = condition of habitat \(k\), current [\(c\)] or reference [\(r\)]

\(\alpha\) = weighted area of habitat \(k\)

\(A_{k}\) = area of habitat \(k\)

\(r\) = habitat protective ability rank weight

\(N\) = number of habitats

habitats: salt marshes, seagrass beds, mangroves, coral reefs, sea ice

## Tourism & Recreation

Tourism & recreation value, independent of monetary exchange

\[ x_{TR} = \frac{VL_{c}*PVL + VI_{c}* PVI}{VL_{r}+VI_{r}} * S_{t} \]

\(VL_{.}\) = total number of local visitors, current [\(c\)] or reference [\(r\)]

\(PVL\) = percentage of local visitors for each region

\(VI_{.}\) = total number of international visitors, current [\(c\)] or reference [\(r\)]

\(PVL\) = percentage of international visitors for each region

\(S_{t}\) = sustainability measure

\(t\) = current year

## Livelihoods & Economies: Livelihoods

Number of jobs and job quality from marine-associated sectors

\[ x_{LIV} = \frac{\frac{\sum_{i=1}^{k} j_{c,i}}{\sum_{i=1}^{k} j_{r,i}} + \frac{\sum_{i=1}^{k} g_{m,i}}{\sum_{i=1}^{k} g_{r,i}}}{2} \]

\(j_{.,i}\) = number of jobs within sector \(i\) at current [\(c\)] or reference [\(r\)] time

\(g_{.,i}\) = average wages per job for sector \(i\) at current [\(m\)] or reference [\(r\)] region

sectors (\(k\)): tourism, commercial fishing, marine mammal watching, aquarium fishing, wave & tidal energy, mariculture, transportation & shipping, ports & harbors, ship & boatbuilding

## Livelihoods & Economies: Economies

Revenue from marine associated sectors

\[ x_{ECO} = \sum_{i=1}^{k} \frac{vab_{c,i}}{vab_{r,i}} \]

\(vab_{.,i}\) = aggregate gross value from each sector \(i\) at current [\(c\)] or reference [\(r\)] time

sectors (\(k\)): tourism, commercial fishing, marine mammal watching, aquarium fishing, wave & tidal energy, mariculture, transportation & shipping, ports & harbors, ship & boatbuilding, sea salt extraction

## Sense of Place: Iconic Species

Aesthetic connections to and cultural identity with a given region measured through the status of iconic species

\[ x_{ICO} = \frac{\sum_{i=1}^{N} S_{i} * w_{i}}{\sum_{i=1}^{N} S_{i}} \]

\(S_{i}\) = number of assessed species in each threat category \(i\)

\(w_{i}\) = status weight assigned per threat category \(i\)

\(N\) = 6 threat categories

iconic species list: WWF Priority Species

threat categories: IUCN

# Sense of Place: Lasting Special Places

Aesthetic connections to and cultural identity with a given region measured through the status of meaningful locations

\[ x_{LSP} = \frac{(\frac{M}{M_{r}} + \frac{C}{C_{r}})}{2} \]

\(M\) = percent protected marine coastal area compared to reference [\(r\)]

\(C\) = percent protected coastline compared to reference [\(r\)]

## Clean Waters

The degree to which coastal waters are free of contaminants

\[ x_{CW} = \sqrt[4]{a * u * l * d} \]

\(a\) = number of coastal people without access to sanitation

\(u\) = 1 – (nutrient input)

\(l\) = 1 – (chemical input)

\(d\) = 1 – (marine debris input, by country)

## Biodiversity: Habitats

Existence values people hold for biodiversity measured through the status of key habitats

\[ x_{HAB} = \sum_{k=1}^{N} \frac{C_{c,k}}{C_{r,k}} * \frac{A_{c,k}}{A_{T}} \]

\(C_{.,k}\) = condition of habitat k, current [\(c\)] or reference[\(r\)]

\(A_{.,k}\) = area of habitat k, current [\(c\)] or total of all habitats [T]

\(N\) = number of habitats

habitats: seagrass beds, salt marshes, subtidal soft-bottom habitats, mangroves, coral reefs

## Biodiversity: Species

Existence values people hold for biodiversity measured through the status of native species

\[ x_{SPP} = \frac{\sum_{k=1}^{M} (\frac{\sum_{i=1}^{N_{k}} w_{i}}{N_{k}}) * A_{k}}{A_{T}} \]

\(M\) = number of habitats in the assessment region

\(N_{k}\) = number species in a habitat \(k\)

\(A_{.}\) = total area of habitat [\(k\)] or total assessment region area [T]

\(w_{i}\) = status weight assigned per threat

assessed species list and maps: IUCN